Glossary

In the bench or full bench. Refers to court sessions with the entire membership of a court participating, rather than the usual quorum. U.S. courts of appeals usually sit in panels of three judges, but may expand to a larger number in certain cases they deem important enough to be decided by the entire court. They are then said to be sitting en banc.

Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.

Evidence which tends to show the defendant’s innocence.

Physical evidence or documents that are presented in a court proceeding. Common exhibits include contracts, weapons, and photographs.